Pig Farming is a lucrative agribusiness with huge return on investment. Pig farming is rearing of domestic pigs as livestock for commercial purpose. Pig farming agribusiness is a lucrative agribusiness that goes a long way in mitigating unemployment, hunger and poverty.
Pig Farming is a niche in animal husbandry and is defined as the process of raising pigs either on a small scale or large scale for meat production or other commercial purposes.
Pig Farming in Nigeria is a lucrative agribusiness with huge profitability that most Nigerians are yet to tap into. Even though Pork production and consumption have risen rapidly, there is huge gap in demand over supply. Pork is the most common animal protein consumed in the world followed by Poultry and Beef. Pig Meat is a very important animal protein in human diets.Pig has the greatest output of meat than the combined output meats of from cattle ,sheep and others.
Pig Farming Profits are listed below:
Pigs farming have numerous advantages when compared to any other animal husbandry.
The Advantages of Pig Farming are as follows:
– Pigs have high growth rate from 1.5kg at birth to 90kg within 170 days.
– They have higher proportion of edible meat and small proportion of bones when compared to other animals.
– They have high reproduction rate. A sow can reproduce 20 pigs within a year.
– Pig Farming requires low labour or man power.
– They provide employment for youths and source of income generation.
– There is huge market demand for pig meat and products.
– They have low mortality rate when you used the crossbreed species.
– Pigs can adapt easily to most environmental conditions.
– Pigs give huge return on Investment.(ROI is high)
– Pigs have the capacity of converting kitchen wastes and non-feedstuff into meat.They feed on plants materials like grains, tubers, crop residue and agro industrial bye-products.
– Pigs have high dressing percentage than cattle, goat or sheep.
– Pigs faeces make good fertilizer for crops and can be used in livestock feed production when recycled.
In conclusion , Pig Farming has lost o f profits when compared to other animal husbandry.
In Pig farming Agribusiness , You need to consider what to produce i.e feeders Pigs, Feed Purchased Feeders Pigs or produce and finish own pigs.
It is advised that when starting a pig production enterprise one should determine the type of enterprise to venture into first.
We have 3 different Pig Production Enterprises to consider and they are listed below-
1.Feeder Pig Production:
This is one of the different Pig Production Enterprise to consider.
The farmer keep a sow herd which produces weaners which he sells to Finishing Pig Enterprise Operators. Pigs of Market price of 18 to 30kg are produced and sold to Finishing Operation. The System works best on farms that lack concentrate feed needed for the Finish Pigs but have adequate labour and facilities that enhance sow herd management. This can be practiced by a part-time farmer, a small farmer that is close to finisher market.
Advantages of The Feeder Pig Production System:
- It requires small capital inputs
- Possible to generate a relatively consistent income
- Requires less feed and involves less manure-handling.
Disadvantages of the feeder Pig Production System:
- Relatively higher level of diseases and management problems such as conception rate,pre and post weaning survival rates,sow feed intake ,milk production etc.
- Requires greater management skills and labour to handle potential problems.
- Fluctuations in market prices of feeder pigs.
2.Feeder Pig Finishing Operation:
Here the farmers buys piglets either as weaners or growers about 20kg body weight ad feed them to market weight. It requires large sum of capital .It works perfectly on farms that have shortage of labour and skills for a sow-herd management and where there is availability of concentrate feed for the finishing pigs. In this type of system , the farmer must be skilled in buying and selling, willing to keep with the markets and must have adequate capital or ability to use other marketing techniques.
Advantages of Feeder Pig Finishing Operation:
- Capital turnover is fast.
- Requires less labour and management skills .
- Pig waste can be used as fertilizer.
Disadvantages of Feeder Pig Finishing Operation:
- The cost of buying Feeder Pigs is usually about 40% of total production cost and 2 times of the market pigs.
- May face lack of genetic conformity and unknown health status, thus causing variation in growth performance and carcass merit, and may increase medication cost and mortality rate.
- The market price is liable to fluctuation for both the raw material (Feeder pigs) and the end product|(market pigs) and might greatly influence profit or losses.
3.Farrow to Finish Operation:
Here the Farmer keeps a sow-herd and produces his own. This combines both the Feeder Pig Production and Feeder Pig Finishing Operation. The farmer produces own feeder pigs and raise them to market weight. Returns from the farrow to finish system which will in turn give higher returns than the feeder pig system. Farrow to finish operation can take advantages of both and minimize disadvantages.
Business Opportunities In Pig Farming
Pig Farming is a lucrative agribusiness with huge return on investment. We have 3 main Business Opportunities in Pig Farming. The Business Opportunities in Pig Farming are outlined below:
1. Manure or Compost:
Pig faeces can be combined with plant material to produce compost or manure. Pig manure can be solid or liquid depending on the type of plants that require the manure. Within 4 weeks, young pigs are capable of producing manure which you can sell to farmers that are practicing crop farming. Pig faeces make good fertilizer for crops and can be recycled into livestock feed.
Pigs are kept for the production of pork and bacon. The demand for pig meat is on the increase both on a local and global scale. There is a huge market demand for pork meat this makes Pig Farming a lucrative business for anyone to venture into. Pork in great demand than any other animal protein. There is a great business opportunity in pork production. It’s meat is a very important source of animal protein. There is a greater output of meat from pigs than any other animal.
Pigs skin can be used in the leather industry in manufacturing of gloves, belts, boots and other items. This has a very ROI on this type of agribusiness.
4. Pig Feed Production:
Feed Additives play a very important role in enhancing the nourishment given to pigs. Swine feed can be found in several forms which including cakes, cereals, meals, minerals, viatamins, and fats and oils.The supplement fed to swine consist of grass, hay, and certain kinds of legumes. The consumption of pork meat is rising in newer markets and thus, anticipated to fuel the demand for swine feed market globally. The market can be classified into sow feed, starter feed , pig grower feed are amongst others.
PIG BREEDS FOR MEAT
Different Pig Breeds for Meat in Pig farming.
Choosing a quality breeds is essential for pig farming agribusiness. The type and quality of pigs you have in your farm go a long way to determine your success. We have 2 classes of breeds used in pig farming.
- Indigenous Breed.
- Exotic Breed.
Characteristics of the Indigenous Breeds
- The Indigenous breeds have low body weight. They are adapted to traditional rearing system .
- They have smaller and shorter legs.
- The Indigenous sow have excellent mothering ability. They are sexually early maturing. Also, they have low mortality rate.
The Exotic breed are majorly used for commercial pig farming. They are used for commercial pig farming because they produce lean meat combined with efficient feed conversion when compare to Indigenous breeds and also are known to have high resistance to diseases .
The Exotic Pig Breeds used for commercial pig farming include the following-
- Large White(Yorkshire)
Characteristics of this breed are:
- They have a large head with standing ears.
- Their body colour is white.
- They have long body and strong legs.
- They have big shoulders with a straight back.
- They have a short snout .
- They reach 80-90kg body weight within 6 months.
- The litter sow range is between 10-11 piglets.
- They pig grows rapidly and produce good quality lean meat .
- They have high prolificacy.
- The females are good mothers and adapt to a well confined condition.
- Live weight of mature male is between 300-450 kg and females 250-350kg.
- They are used extensively for crossbreeding.
Characteristics of this breed are:
- Their skin and hair are white.
- They have large ears slanting to their sides.
- They have narrow head and a long snout.
- Their hips are big and curved back.
- They can reach 80-90kg live body weight within 6 months.
- The sow litter sizes of 10-12 piglets.
- They have rapid growth rate and yield quality meat.
- The average live weight of a mature male is 310-400kg and females 250-330kg .
- Good for Bacon production.
- Landrace breed is used in crossbreeding because the sows have a long body and udder with many teats.
- They originated from Denmark.
Characteristics of this breed are:
- They are red in colour.
- They have big hips and muscular.
- They have a large head with a short snout.
- Medium sized ears and a bit fallen.
- They have rapid growth rate and good ability to adapt to varied climatic conditions.
- They have small litter size of about 7-9 piglets per litter.
- They are used as sire line for productions of crossbreeds pigs.
- They grow faster than any other breed.
- They have high weaning rate.
- They have capacity of growing into heavier weight without depositing too much fat.
Characteristics of this breed are:
- They are black in colour with white belt and muscular.
- They have high prolificacy with a litter size of 9 with a high weaning rate.
- They thrive better in extensive condition than white breed.
- The average live weight of matured male is 300kg and female is 250kg.
- They are good for Bacon production.
Characteristics of Tamworth Breed are:
- They are golden red in colour.
- They have long head and prick ears.
- They have straight face, snout and a long narrow body.The mature boar weigh close to 245-265kg and sow 200-300kg.
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