Fish Farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as Fish ponds, usually for food and for economic gain.
Fish Farming is a lucrative venture to start in Africa and easy to start with capital as low as One hundred Thousand Naira.
HOW TO START FISH FARMING
- Get a good Location for the fish farm: Before you choose a location for your fish farm you need to first consider the type of fish you want to farm and the fishing techniques that one wants to embark on.It is needful to site your fish farm in a place or site where there are tall trees and that is also secured from predators.
- Get a good Source of Water: It is important to rear fish with clean water free from bacteria and other substances that can poise a serious problem to them. The farmer should not use rainfall and treated water that is water treated with chemicals but he should use natural source of water.
- Choose the Appropriate Fish Pond: Construct the fish pond according to the appropriate specification and requirements.
- Decide the right species of fish :one should choose the species of fish based on important factors such as environment,the market demand and some other important factors.
- Get Healthy Juveniles or Fingerlings: Purchase your Juveniles /Fingerlings from the right source that has a long and good record of healthy juveniles.
- Understand Fish Feeds and Feeding: It is good to know the type of feed to give them as at when due.
- Start marketing your fish before they grow up: Start creating awareness of your fish before they grow up.
- Be business Minded: Start making plans on how to market your business.
FISH FARMING TECHNIQUES:
In Aquaculture , we have intensive and extensive aquaculture.
- Intensive Fish Farming Techniques involves rearing fish in artificial tank at very high densities.
- Extensive Fish Farming Techniques is done in ocean ,lakes which could be man -made or naturals. Fish are contained within these habitat by multiple mesh enclosures which also function as trapping net during harvest.
- Cage System: This system involves production system where fish are reared and grown in floating net cages. They can be placed in water bodies having average depth of 5meters to raise and protect the fingerlings .
- Pond System: The basic requirement is to have a ditch pond that can retain water, possible with an average ground irrigation system. The ponds are usually lined with clay.
- Integrated Recycling System: This involves extended water purification systems in that it allows the reuse of local water.
- Classic Fry Farming : Here Fishes are raised from eggs or fingerlings and then trucked to streams and released ,the fries are raised in fresh water.
FISH MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES:
- Construction: This is analyzed under
a)Size : The size of your pond is the major factor that will determine what fish species to stock , the degree of management needed to maintain these fishes and how many fishes you remove each year.
b)Depth: Pond depth should be between 8 feet , with maximum depth not greater than 10 or 12 feet.
c)Water Outlets: Drain pipe is necessary to control water outlet.
d)Site Preparation: Remove all bush, trees and vegetation before filling the pond.
a)Water Quality: that is water with no pollutants , high in dissolved oxygen and does not have excessive organic matter.
b)Fish Structure: Provide a substrate for aquatic insects.
c) Fertilization: This increases pond productivity by stimulating microscopic plant growth.
d) Liming : It helps to reduce the acidic nature of the water.
- Fish Stocking:
a)Stocking Consideration according to goals , resources available to the farmer.
b)Fish to stock depending on the type of fish being reared and their growth size.
c)Fish to avoid: Avoid mixing some fish together as some can eat others.
- Managing Fish Population:
a)Removing Unwanted and Over populated fish.
b)Harvesting them when due and also maintaining balance in terms of number after harvest
c) Fish Feeding : The amount of food in your pond determines the productivity of the pond and the weight of your fish.
- Record Keeping: This involves numbers and sizes of fish caught in the pond .
- Managing other Animals.
- Aquatic Water control like algae.
- Testing your pond to know how well is doing.
- Diagnosing Pond Problems.
Importance of Fish Farming.
- It serves as food.
- It serves as means of employment .
- It generates foreign currency earning .
- It leads socio-economic development.
- It serves as raw materials used in poultry feed formulation.
- It leads to Industrial development.