Broiler Farming is the rearing of birds solely for meat production. This can be done on a small scale or a large scale. Broiler Farming on a large scale is capital intensive. This type of farming requires a minimum of 4 weeks and maximum of 10 weeks, after that the birds are ready for meat.
Presently, there is a huge market demand for broilers.
Making the initial arrangement of sourcing your marketing channels like meeting hoteliers, groceries stores, Cafeterias, restaurants will help you to market your birds timely and avoid some birds from not being sold after maturity. Clients want to buy birds that look clean and healthier. They want Broilers between 1.5kg and 3kg live weight. Ensure that your Broilers have large meat around breasts and thighs.
The following factors are required for Successful Broiler Farming.
Get adequate training on Broiler Farming. You need knowledge, skills and experience to manage broiler farm. You can undergo internship training for some months in a Broiler Farm near you. Practical experience is vital for a Successful Broiler Farming.
Conduct a Feasibility Study: Carry out a market research to find out the cost of setting up a Broiler Farm, present cost of Chicks, cost of Broiler Equipment, Medications, Broiler feeds, Housing and etc.
- Get a business plan on Broiler Farming: Broiler Business Plan is paramount for the success of this agribusiness and enable avoid losses.
- Raise Start-up Capital: Broiler Farming on a large scale is capital intensive. So you need to really prepare for the cost. You can raise capital from your personal savings, friends and family, loans from bank and all that to enable you kick-start this venture.
- Purchase Broiler Equipment. You need the following equipment for Broiler farming like- Feeders, Drinkers, Nests, Lighting System, Waste Disposal System, Heaters or Brooders, Cages and Coops.
- Broiler Housing: Consider the type of housing system and fencing options you want to use. A good housing is paramount to the success of your broiler farm and it determines up to 40% of your success. There are 3 housing system in Broiler Farming. They include- Extensive System, Semi Intensive System and Intensive System. The Intensive System involves Deep Litter, Battery Cage System, etc. The above three housing systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. Using the Intensive System is advised for Commercial Broiler Farming.
Place the Waterers in the Brooder rings so that once the Chicks arrive, you place them in the brooder ring. Then Place the feed in the Feeder lids or plastic feeder trays in the ratio of 0ne per 100 chicks.
- Purchase Healthy Chicks from Poultry Farms and from reputable farms.
- Feed The Chicks: This take up to 70% of your expenses. This is the most expensive especially in commercial poultry establishment feed mills to ensure optimal performance and consistency of the feed. Give your Broiler quality feed rations, always adhere to the manufacturer instruction on the feed and avoid mixing feeds from several millers adding other protein sources and mineral salts as this change the balance in the feed thereby affecting performance. The Broilers need 20-25 percent for growth and development. Broiler Starter Mash that is what you give them. Broilers with finisher mash which will give them an increased energy and reduces protein intake. Some people give pellets to Broilers from six weeks until it is time to slaughter. Mix the two rations so that the change is gradual during the changing period of rations. Abrupt change in feeding could be stressful to birds and cause reduction in performance. Vitamins can be introduced to relieve stress. Raise the level of the Feeder as the birds grow. If you are using tube feeders provide 3 feeders of 12kg capacity per Chicks.
There are two ways you use to provide feeds to the Chicks either you produce the feeds by yourself or buy already made feeds from feed mills. Producing your feed by yourself for commercial Broiler Farming will help save cost of production. All you need to do is to learn how to make your feeds, purchase equipment and start producing feeds for your farm. Get the feed formula and ingredients that would boost the growth of your birds.
- Provide adequate Water, Temperate and Ventilation.
Distribute drinkers evenly for the birds while alternating them with feeders so that they are easily accessible to all birds. At least 1.5meters distance to the next waterer.
Always adjust the drinkers and feeders level as the birds grow. Wash and disinfect Chicks drinkers daily. Use water sanitizer to rid microbes in their water. Always refill the drinkers with fresh water after washing and never allow them to go dry.
A Broiler drinks up to 2 liters of water for ever one kg of feed consumed. This implies that it takes 3.5 litres of water for every kilogram of bird grown. When Broilers are heat stressed, they increase consumption of water in order to cool their body temperature.
- Provide Adequate Lighting System: Lighting increases body weight gain and improves their feather growth. Broilers require 24 hours of light. One or two 40 –watt bulbs hung over the pen are adequate for home Broiler farming
- Hire Staff and Manpower: You need staff and manpower that will oversee the day to day running of your farm. You need personnel who will reside in the farm to monitor your birds and track inflow and outflow of people around your farm for security purposes.
- Provide Vaccination: Carry out routine monitoring of your birds. Daily check out the status of the birds. This can be seen from the behavior of your birds such as their droppings, feed intake, and death rates. Broilers are more susceptible to metabolic diseases than other categories of Chicken. Metabolic dieases such as ascites, sudden death syndrome, fatty liver and kidney syndrome,and tibial dyschondronplasia have become a serious health problems of fast growing Broilers.
- Vaccination is important in managing the health of your birds. Consult a Veterinarian today.
When vaccinating through drinking water, the water supply system should be free from chlorine and other chemical agents for 48 hours prior to and 24 hours after vaccination . The birds should consume the vaccine within 2 hours after mixing it. Administer Vitamins for a day or two after every vaccination to reduce stress. Vaccinate your Broilers against these diseases- Infectious bronchitis(IB), new castle disease(NCD) and Infectious bursa disease (IBD/Gumboro).
Vaccination Method Age
IB +NCD Drinking water/Eye drop Day 9-12
Gumboro Drinking Water Day 14-16
IB+ NCD Drinking water/Eye Drop Day 18-20
Gumboro Drinking water Day 21- 24
- Account Keeping: For Commercial Broiler Farming, proper account keeping is a must for to track your performance and productivity of your birds. You can purchase farm management software, install it on your computer and use to track your farm activities and transactions.
- Marketing Plan: Develop your marketing strategies for the sale of your Broilers.
In conclusion, Broiler is profitable agribusiness, though capital intensive but the market demand is huge. Start your Broiler farming today and start making your profits.